Synthesis and Electrochemical Properties of Li3V2(BO3)3/C Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries
WANG You, ZENG Yi-wen, ZHONG Xing, LIU Xing, TANG Quan
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The Li3V2(BO3)3/C (LVB/C) composite materials were successfully synthesized in two steps：Firstly, a stoichiomertric mixture of Li2C2O4, V2O5, H3BO3, H2C2O4•H2O and ethanol was thoroughly ball-milled to get the precursors. Secondly, the precursors were post-calcinated to get the ultimate products. The calcination temperatures of 750 ℃, 800 ℃ and 850 ℃ were selected based on TG-DTA analyses. The crystal structures, surface morphologies and carbon contents of the samples calcinated at five conditions, namely, a(750 ℃, 10 h), b(800 ℃, 10 h), c(850 ℃, 10 h), d(800 ℃, 5 h) and e(800 ℃, 15 h), were characterized by XRD, SEM and EDS, respectively. The results showed that the dominant phase of all the samples was (Li0.31V0.69)3BO5 with the impure Li3VO4 phase in Samples a, b, c, and LiVO2 phase in Samples a, b, d and e. All of the samples consisted of many cylindrical particles, polygonal particles and agglomerations, among which Sample b showed better crystallized and less-agglomerated particles. EDS data demonstrated that the carbon, oxygen and vanadium elements were uniformly distributed in Sample b, and the carbon contents in Samples a, b, c, d, e were 2.64 %, 1.17 %, 1.51 %, 1.97 %, 1.30 %, respectively. The electrochemical performances of Samples a, b, c, d and e were compared by obtaining the galvanostatic charge/discharge, cycling ability, cyclic voltammetry curves, and electrochemical impedance spectra. The results revealed that Sample b achieved the optimal electrochemical performance. The initial charge/discharge capacities at a current density of 50 mA•g-1 were 427.6 mAh•g-1 and 669.1 mAh•g-1, respectively. However, after 10 cycles, only 55.4 % and 35.2 % of the initial charge/discharge capacities were retained, which might be related to the phase transformation from crystalline to amorphous during the insertion and extraction of lithium ions.